Shrubs Amongst the shrubland that dominates large areas of these landscapes, as a result of deforestation, fire, abandoning of agricultural land and/or grazing, there exists the estevais, areas where the dominant species is the gum rockrose (Cistus ladanifer). The pioneering nature of these shrubs allows them to colonize land that has lost its original vegetation. Rockrose is a highly branched shrub usually small, although some may reach 2.5 m height. The flowers are large, ostentatious, white in colour, attracting pollinator insects. This species gives a distinctive aroma to Mediterranean shrublands. The essence of gum rockrose, the labdanum, is exuded especially in summer. Apart from rockrose, there are other small shrub species, predominantly woody and summer semi-deciduous. The latter lose a significant proportion of their leaves during the summer to cope with drought, and many like rosemary and thyme, belong to the Cistaceae and Labiatae families.

 Herbs and grasses