The Neves-Corvo region is located within an important geologic formation: the Iberian Pyritic Belt, extending from the Atlantic to Spain over a distance of 250 km. Underground, the foundation geology is very rich in mineralized orebodies and these are dominated by copper, tin and zinc deposits hosted by iron pyrites. These important metals have been exploited since 2500 BC by numerous mines of which we can find historical and present evidence. It is the currently active Neves-Corvo mine that is the symbolic centre of the region and is the focus of this site. The Neves-Corvo region is characterized by a Mediterranean, semi-arid climate, with annual average precipitation that rarely reaches 500 mm. The orography is generally smooth, and around 250 m in altitude, but it becomes more irregular and 'craggy' when approaching the geographic limits of the region, namely the Guadiana River (to the east), the Caldeirão (to the south) and Grândola (to the west) mountains. These are the geological, climatic and orographic features that, together with human activity, have shaped the habitats of this region. The northern part is dominated by pastures and meadows that form the pseudo-steppe, dominated by herbaceous plants within the preferred habitat of the great and the little bustards. To the south-west, the landscape becomes more forested, with the habitat dominated by Holm-oak at various densities. To the south-east trees are replaced by shrubs, mostly gum rockrose, reflecting the increasing aridity and the increased human pressure. Here and there, the orography exposes the rock, and therefore creating stony habitats. Scattered over the landscape, abandoned buildings provide shelter for many animals, including birds. All these habitats reflect the strong seasonality characteristic of the Mediterranean climate: the winter rains bring green 'carpets', soon to be replaced by the golden colour of the summer, when the green colour is restricted to the trees and along watercourses. These, often temporary watercourses host a hygrophytic flora and attract animals to the dry-season pools, the only source of water during the summer. It is on the biodiversity hosted by these landscapes that this site is focused.